Globalisation has accompanied humankind for all its history, but now it has achieved a critical mass, where the whole planet is as close as ever to be a single market. Globalisation is also intimately linked to the process of innovation, which thrives when markets are deeper and more horizontally integrated.
However, the world is much less globalised than is commonly assumed and in some areas much more so than in others. Globalisation also varies greatly between countries. While its growing trend is caused by technological progress, there are many barriers hampering its advance.
Here we focus our attention on the horizontal and vertical integration of markets, on the technology and politics which makes this possible, and on all the other types of innovation which shift the planet towards more integration. We also specifically investigate the barriers holding back the forces of globalisation.